Amazon Botanicals

Bladderwrack | Purple Corn

Price: $18.97
Contains the 2 most exciting natural nutritional groups missing from the typical modern diet. Anthocyanins, which is found in purple colored plants and glyconutrients found in Fucus rich seaweeds such as Bladderwrack. Researchers find that people that consume these nutritional groups receive the Bladderwrack benefits and anthocyanin benefits tend to be healthier and live longer. Consider this product your best insurance for a healthy future.
What are Anthocyanins?

Anthocyanins are pigments found in some plants, vegetables and fruits. From the Greek words for plant and blue, anthocyanins are what make blueberries blue, and Cuzco Purple Corn (one of the two main ingredients of Amazon - Wellness) purple.

What are the Properties of Anthocyanins?

Anthocyanins are in a class of plant compounds called flavonoids. Approximately 4,000 different flavonoids have since been discovered, but a recent study of over 150 flavonoids found that anthocyanins have the greatest antioxidating power. Each fruit has its own distinct proportions of anthocyanins that determine its shade. Over 200 anthocyanins have been discovered. Purple corn has 70% cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside or C3G. The high concentration of cyanidin as opposed to other anthocyanins gives Purple Corn many of its unique health-promoting properties.

Cyanadin is highly unstable, and can be broken down or affected by high temperatures or acidity, so maintaining the health benefits of anthocyanins in supplements can be tricky. The extraction process for creating Amazon - Wellness maintains the amount of anthocyanins in Cuzco Purple Corn, maximizing their beneficial capabilities.

What are the health benefits of Anthocyanins?

Perhaps the most famous example of the value of anthocyanins is what is called the “French paradox.” The French eat foods which are high in fat, but they also, on average, consume one to two glasses of red wine a day, which seems to make up for their less-than-heart-healthy eating habits. Up to 8 studies have shown that red wine (rich in anthocyanin) can help protect you from blood clotting and coronary heart disease.

Recent Studies Have Shown:

In studies on animals, anthocyanins protected the cell wall from oxidation hazards.1

Cyanindins (the type of anthocyanin most prevalent in Purple Corn) was found to "function as a potent antioxidant in vivo."2

Studies have shown that the anthocyanin known as cyanidin is four times more powerful than Vitamin E as an antioxidant.3

A US study found that anthocyanins can be effective in reversing age-related deficits in several neuronal and behavioral parameters.

Bulgarian researches found that anthocyanins have anti-inflammatory and antihistamine effects on animals.5

A famous test on hamsters in Italy demonstrated that anthocyanins help prevent capillary damage by stabilizing capillary walls.1


1. Bertuglia S, et al. Effect of Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides on ischemia reperfusion injury in hamster cheek pouch microcirculation. Pharmacol Res 1995;31(3/4):183-7.
2. Tsuda T. The role of anthocyanins as an antioxidant under oxidative stress in rats. Biofactors 2000; 13(1-4):133-9.
3. Rice-Evans CA. The relative antioxidant activities of plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoids. Free Radical Res 1995 Apr;22(4):3785-93.
4. J Neurosci. 1999 Sep 15;19(18):8114-21. United States Department of Agriculture, Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.
5. Borissova P, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids in the natural juice from Aronia melanocarpa, rutin, and rutin-magnesium. Complex on an experimental model of inflammation induced by histamine and serotonin. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg 1994;20(1):25-30.

What is Fucus?
Fucus is a substance found in the cell walls of brown seaweeds, most highly concentrated in Fucus vesiculosus. This unique seaweed grown in abundance along the North Atlantic coast of Canada, where it's cold and clean growing environment is continuously replenished by the world's highest tides. Fucus is what makes seaweed the tough, leathery, slippery plant we think of. It serves as a barrier between the plant and the elements and provides the bladderwrack benefits.

What are the Properties of Fucus?
Fucus contains high concentrations of fucose (not to be confused with fructose) which is one of the eight essential glyconutrients that are used to construct many of the molecular building blocks for various biological processes (and life) to continue. These essential sugars include sugars commonly found in our diets such as glucose from cane sugar and galactose from milk. However, concentrations of the essential sugar fucose are low in Western diets.
What are the Health Benefits of Fucus?
So many benefits have been found that the true medical benefits of brown seaweed are, in fact, rather hotly debated. However, there is one thing that everyone seems to agree on...
Fucus-rich, brown seaweed is good for you. Currently, much research is being done on the effects of Fucus-rich seaweed on cell-related illnesses, as well as its power as an anti-aging dietary supplement. One cannot help noticing that cultures whose diet is high in Fucus have exceptionally low instances of cell-related illnesses and boast famously long life spans.
One theory of Fucus states that the essential sugar fucose acts as a decoy for unwanted organisms and debris in the body, allowing these illness-causing agents to bind to fucose instead of your cell. Simply put, the fucose that makes seaweed slippery also makes dangerous organisms slide off your cells. This helps to prevent cell-related diseases and to inhibit tumors.
Fucus also stimulates the development of immune system cells, boosting the body’s ability to fight off variousfree radicals. The National Institute of Health has stated that the number one cause of illness is infectious disease. Yet 90% of the off-the-shelf vitamins recommended to strengthen the immune system loose much of their potency in the packaging process. Fucus extracted with theFull Spectrum Method retains it immune-enhancing properties.
Recent Studies Have Shown:

A Japanese study demonstrated that fucus enhanced the process by which white blood cells engulf and destroy bacteria and viruses.1

A US study showed that fucus increases the numbers of white blood cells in your system, the cells that act as your immunity army against free radicals.2

An American study demonstrated the influence fucus has on the body’s ability to repair damaged cells and inhibit the degeneration of aging cells.3

1. H, Noda H, Amano H, Zhuaung C, Mizuno T and Ito H. Antitumor Activity and Immunological Properties of Marine Algal Polysaccharises, Especially Fucus, Prepared from Sargassum Thumbergii of Phaeophyceae. Anticancer Research, Nov-Dec 1993, 13(6A): 2045-52

2. Sweeney EA, Lortat-Jacob H, Priestley GV, Nakamoto B, Papayannopoulou T. Sulfated polysaccharides increase plasma levels of SDF-1 in monkeys and mice: involvement in mobilization of stem/progenitor cells. Blood, Jan 1 2002, 99(1): 44-51

3. Frenette PS, Weiss L. Sulfated glycans induce rapid hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization: evidence for selectin-dependent and independent mechanisms. Blood, 2000 Oct 1, 96(7): 2460-8
There are more than 2100 scientific studies done on Purple Corn and Anthocyanins, Fucus vesiculosus and fucus. Listed below are some extracts of these studies. For more in-depth research, please visit
Third Party Research/Studies : Purple Corn & Anthocyanins Studies
Multiple Benefits

Dr Nobuyuki Ito of the University of Nagoya of Japan reveals the results of the investigation into the purple corn pigment.

Got Anthocyanins? Published in Nutrition Science News, this article covers a variety of health-promoting benefits of anthocyanins.
Antioxidant Articles A collection of anthocyanin and antioxidant research. Covers multiple wellness benefits of antioxidants.
Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. This study conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture found that when added to rats' diets anthocyanins from various dietary fruits and vegetables were "effective in reversing age-related deficits in several neuronal and behavioral parameters...These findings suggest that phytochemicals present in antioxidant-rich foods may be beneficial in reversing the course of neuronal and behavioral aging."
Dietary cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside-rich purple corn color prevents obesity and ameliorates hyperglycemia in mice. This study done in Kyoto, Japan found mice that were fed a high fat diet along with anthocyanins from the purple corn plant showed significantly less weight gain than mice that were fed the same high fat diet without the purple corn supplement. This lead the researchers to conclude that anthocyanins from the purple corn may have benefits for the prevention of obesity.
Tumor Studies
Pronounced inhibition by a natural anthocyanin, purple corn color, of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-associated colorectal carcinogenesis in male F344 rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Researchers in Ichinomiya, Japan found that purple corn color included in the diets of rats along with a known colorectal cancer-inducing agent significantly reduced the incidence of cancer in this population.
Cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated from skin of black Glycine max and other anthocyanins isolated from skin of red grape induce apoptosis in human lymphoid leukemia Molt 4B cells. Cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside, the same type of anthocyanin primarily found in purple corn, was found to have strong potential health benefits.
Neurotensin-and EGF-induced metabolic activation of colon carcinoma cells is diminished by dietary flavonoid cyanidin but not by its glycosides. Cyanidin, the same type of anthocyanin primarily found in purple corn, was found to be a "potent inhibitor of...cellular growth of cultured colon carcinoma cells."
The anthocyanidins cyanidin and delphinidin are potent inhibitors of the epidermal growth-factor receptor. Cyanidin, the same type of anthocyanin primarily found in purple corn, was found to "inhibit the growth of tumor cells."
Tart cherry anthocyanins inhibit tumor development in Apc(Min) mice and reduce proliferation of human colon cancer cells. Anthocyanins isolated from the tart cherry, similar to anthocyanins in purple corn, inhibited intestinal tumor development in mice and reduced cancer growth in human colon cancer cell lines.
Antioxidant Studies
Stoichiometric and kinetic studies of phenolic antioxidants from Andean purple corn and red-fleshed sweet potato. Conducted in College Station, Texas, these researchers found purple corn to have a higher antioxidant and anti-free radical capacity than blueberries making them "excellent novel sources of natural antioxidants for the functional food and dietary supplement markets."
Antioxidants…More Than Just Vitamins Antioxidants (such as the phytochemicals, anthocyanins) found in fruits, vegetables and natural foods may have much more antioxidating power than vitamins A, C and E often associated with anti-oxidation and found in pill-form.
The role of anthocyanins as an antioxidant under oxidative stress in rats. Cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside, the same anthocyanin primarily found in purple corn, was included in the diets of rats and found to function "as a potent antioxidant in vivo under oxidative stress"
The relative antioxidant activities of plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoids. Because of its unique structure among anthocyanins (3',4' dihydroxy substituents in the B ring and conjugation between the A and B rings), cyanidin--the same anthocyanin primarily found in purple corn--has been found to have "antioxidant potentials four times that of Trolox, the vitamin E analogue."
A comparative study of antimicrobial, antimutagenic and antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds from purple corn and bilberry colorant extracts. Purple corn was found to have higher antimutagenic and antioxidant properties when compared to bilberry extract. Purple corn inhibited 56% mutagenesis, while no antimutagenic properties where reported from bilberry extract.
Circulatory and Anti-Inflammatory
Effect of Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides on ischaemia reperfusion injury in hamster cheek pouch microcirculation. Anthocyanosides isolated from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) were found to help prevent inflammation and subsequent damage to blood-vessel walls.
Administration of natural anthocyanins derived from chokeberry retardation of idiopathic and preeclamptic origin. Influence on metabolism of plasma oxidized lipoproteins: the role of autoantibodies to oxidized low density lipoproteins. 55 pregnant women who suffered from intrauterine growth retardation (which slows fetal growth) were given natural anthocyanins derived from the chokeberry for two months. It was concluded that: "natural antioxidants (anthocyanins) can be useful in controlling of oxidative stress during pregnancies complicated by IUGR."
Protective effects of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside from blackberry extract against peroxynitrite-induced endothelial dysfunction and vascular failure. Cyanidin-3-O glucoside, the same anthocyanin primarily found in purple corn, was found to work against vascular failure induced by peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of allergic disorders including asthma.
Diabetic Studies
In vivo sequential study of skeletal muscle capillary permeability in diabetic rats: effect of anthocyanosides. Diabetics often suffer from blood vessel damage due to excess sugar in the blood. This damage makes blood vessels more permeable than they should be and is often associated with many of the other complications of diabetes. In this French study, it was found that diabetic rats administered with anthocyanosides were able to maintain normal capillary filtration of albumin (which is an indicator of prevention of capillary damage by anthocyanins).
Improved Vision and Eyesight Studies
Effect of anthocyanins on human connective tissue metabolism in the human. Because of the damage to capillaries in diabetics, diabetic retinopathy can lead to blindness. In this French study, it was shown that test subjects treated with anthocyanosides showed significantly less damage to connective tissue than normal, leading them to conclude that: "Anthocyanosides help to prevent diabetics from injuries caused by malfunction of synthesis-activities throughout normal diabetic medical treatment."
Stimulatory effect of cyanidin 3-glycosides on the regeneration of rhodopsin. Cyanidin 3-glycosides, the primary anthocyanin found in purple corn was found to stimulate the regeneration of rhodopsin, possibly leading to the enhanced vision effects sometimes tied to anthocyanins.

Breakdown of Anthocyanins in Purple Corn
Anthocyanins isolated from purple corn (Zea mays. L.) Analysis of anthocyanin types in purple corn.

Fucus and Fucus vesiculosus Studies
Menstrual Cycle & Pre-menopausal
The effect of Fucus vesiculosus, an edible brown seaweed, upon menstrual cycle length and hormonal status in three pre-menopausal women. A Case Report - Rates of estrogen-dependent cancers are among the highest in Western countries and lower in the East. These variations may be attributable to differences in dietary exposures such as higher seaweed consumption among Asian populations. The edible brown kelp, Fucus vesiculosus (bladderwrack), as well as other brown kelp species, lower plasma cholesterol levels.
Antioxidant Studies
A new antioxidant isobenzofuranone derivative from the algicolous marine fungus Epicoccum sp. A new compound isolated from the marine brown algae Fucus vesiculosus (Bladder wrack) was found to have high antioxidant properties, "showing 95 % DPPH radical scavenging effects at 25 microg/mL."
Potential antioxidant capacity of sulfated polysaccharides from the edible marine brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus. This experiment conducted in Spain analyzed the antioxidating power of Fucus vesiculosus (Bladder wrack) and concluded that "sulfated polysaccharides from edible seaweeds potentially could be used as natural antioxidants by the food industry."
Immunity and Antibacterial Studies
Sulfated polysaccharides increase plasma levels of SDF-1 in monkeys and mice: involvement in mobilization of stem/progenitor cells. Fucus was found to increase the level of white blood cells in circulation in monkeys and mice. White blood cells are known for their bacterial fighting capability.
Immunostimulating and anticoagulating activity of Fucus from brown algae Fucus evanescens of Okhotskoe sea. Fucus was compared to heparin (a prescription drug used to slow the formation of blood clots). "The results of investigation demonstrated possibility of fucus application as immunomodulating and anticoagulating agent of plant origin."
Tumor Studies
Antitumor activity and immune response of Mekabu Fucus extracted from Sporophyll of Undaria pinnatifida. This Japanese study "showed that Fucus, extracted from dietary seaweed, could inhibit tumor growth."
Cytotoxic effects against HeLa cells of polysaccharides from seaweeds. Compounds from various seaweeds were isolated and tested against cultured human cancer cells (HeLa cells). It was found that sulfated fucans "caused significant alterations in the cellular morphology and reduction of the growth." Fucus is a sulfated fucan.
Dietary seaweed (Laminaria) and mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Dietary brown seaweed in rats was found to delay tumor onset, and rats that were fed the seaweed had fewer tumors per individual than rats that were not fed the seaweed.
Antitumor and antiproliferative effects of a fucan extracted from ascophyllum nodosum against a non-small-cell bronchopulmonary carcinoma line. In this French study, the antitumor and antiproliferative properties of Fucus extract was studied on bronchopulmonary carcinoma, a cell-line found to be particularly chemo-resistant. It was also tested in vivo in mice. The results of the study showed that HF (fucus extract) "exhibits inhibitory effect both in vitro and in vivo and is very potent antitumor agent in cancer therapy."

Antitumor activity and immunological properties of marine algal polysaccharides, especially Fucus, prepared from Sargassum thunbergii of Phaeophyceae. A marine algal polysaccharide containing fucus was tested in vivo in mice, and was shown to inhibit the growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The results "suggest that the antitumor activity of fucus is related to the enhancement of immune responses," and that "Fucus may open new perspectives in cancer chemotherapy."

HIV Studies
A new procedure for the isolation of anti-HIV compounds (polysaccharides and polyphenols) from the marine alga Fucus vesiculosus. In this German study, compounds isolated from Fucus vesiculosus "were tested for inhibition of both HIV-induced syncytium formation and HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme activity. Some of these fractions inhibited both of these activities..."
Toxicity Studies
Inhibitory effect of Fucus on the activities of crotaline snake venom myotoxic phospholipases A(2). In this interesting Costa Rican study, fucus from Fucus vesiculosus was found to significantly inhibit muscle damage in mice caused by the envenenomation of a crotaline snake.
Circulatory Studies
Use of sulfated fucans as anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents: future perspectives. This Brazilian study indicated the use of fucus as an anticoagulant (inhibits blood clots) and an antithrombotic (inhibits blood clots lodging in vessels) agent. The study found that fucus had promise as an alternative to heparin, a prescription anticoagulant, and displayed both anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties.
Anticoagulant Activity of Fucus from Brown Algae Fucus evanescens of the Okhotsk Sea. Fucus was found to have anticoagulant properties similar to heparin, a prescription anticoagulant.
Low-molecular-weight Fucus promotes therapeutic revascularization in a rat model of critical hindlimb ischemia. Ischemia refers to insufficient bloodflow to a specific part of the body. When fucus was administered to rats with acute ischemia to the hindlimbs, it was found to increase bloodflow, regenerate muscle tissue, and increase capillary density.
Low molecular weight Fucus prevents neointimal hyperplasia in rabbit iliac artery in-stent restenosis model. Hyperplasia is an abnormal proliferation of cells that can lead to restenosis (a narrowing of the blood vessels). When administered to rabbits, Fucus from brown seaweed "markedly reduced intimal hyperplasia, suggesting its use for the prevention of human in-stent restenosis."
Venous antithrombotic and anticoagulant activities of a Fucus fraction. Conducted in France, this study demonstrated antithrombotic properties (inhibits blood clots lodging in vessels) of fucus and stated that it "shows promise as an antithrombotic drug."
Anticoagulant Fucus fractions from Fucus vesiculosus induce platelet activation in vitro. Fucus from Fucus vesiculosus was found to exhibit anticoagulent and fibrinolytic (breaks up thrombi that clog vessels) properties.
New natural polysaccharides with potent antithrombic activity: fucans from brown algae. This French study shows that fucans extracted from brown algae have anticoagulant properites and "may prove useful as anticoagulant drugs."
Anti-Irritation and Wound Healing Studies
Evidence for bioadhesive effects of polysaccharides and polysaccharide-containing herbs in an ex vivo bioadhesion assay on buccal membranes. Polysaccharides from Fucus vesiculosus were found to adhere strongly to epithelial membranes, perhaps accounting for its therapeutic use to ease irritated mucus membranes.
Fucus is the active component of fucus vesiculosus that promotes contraction of fibroblast-populated collagen gels. Fucus from Fucus vesiculosus was shown to promote collagen gel contraction. Collagen gel is used to model human skin and to study the effect of substances on the wound healing process.
Modulation of human endothelial cell proliferation and migration by Fucus and heparin. The results of this French study suggest fucus as a potential therapeutic agent in the wound repair of vascular endothelium (the layer of cells lining blood vessels).

Skin Enhancing Studies
Treatment of human skin with an extract of Fucus vesiculosus changes its thickness and mechanical properties. In human skin, thickness increases and elasticity decreases as it ages. In this study Fucus vesiculosus (Bladder wrack) was used topically on human skin and was shown to significantly increase elasticity and decrease thickness. The results "suggest that the Fucus vesiculosus extract possesses anti-aging activities and should be useful for a variety of cosmetics.