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The Scientist Magazine Uncovers How Procter & Gamble Uses Biology to Beat Dandruff

How biotechnology, carpet and scotch tape have helped to alleviate itchy scalps.

Philadelphia, PA, May 21, 2008 --( Procter & Gamble is using biology to further develop the best-selling anti-dandruff shampoo, Head & Shoulders. The Scientist magazine reports that the company’s researchers have found that the answer is not to study dandruff, but to use science to take a deeper look at what causes it.

Through the research of biologist Thomas Dawson, 44, who received his PhD in Pharmacology from the University of North Carolina, joined P&G in 1998, and is now the principal scientist in hair care in the beauty technology division, the company has been making dramatic strides for Head & Shoulders. Before Dawson arrived, “There was no biotechnology in the company,” says James Thompson, head of the Global Biotechnology Division. “With the tools Tom [Dawson] brought on board, we’re learning things that just seemed impossible five years ago.” In this month’s issue of The Scientist, available online and on newsstands, Dawson explains the evolution of the shampoo and discusses why “it’s just a bunch of cool stuff.” He says that while working at the diverse P&G, “You learn something about fibers from carpet and you can reapply that to hair!”

Dandruff is caused by microflora, microscopic plants that thrive in the oils on your head. “It’s dark and wet and it’s greasy. So it’s a really great place for microorganisms to live,” Dawson explains. Dawson and his team developed genetic tools to identify the microflora and studied how fungus’ digestive enzymes cause the scalp to flake. The first approach to solving the mystery involved scotch tape and volunteers. At a local clinic, Dawson applied scotch tape to the scalps of volunteers, removed it, and a colleague examined it under an electron microscope. The idea was to link the scale used to rate dandruff severity with a microscopic description of scalp health. Based on these and other findings P&G introduced zinc carbonate into Head & Shoulders in 2006, boosting its efficacy.

With an even better understanding of scalp ecology, the team investigated Malassezia globosa, the primary species that causes dandruff, and identified the gene used to break down scalp oils. In 2007, Dawson and collaborators published the complete genome sequence for Malassezia globosa. A lipase inhibitor was then created and put into the formula for test runs which have yielded results that are “statistically significant,” according to Dawson.

In the 2006 fiscal year, P&G spent $2.1 billion on research and development, which puts them in the ballpark with Pfizer, Merck and DuPont. The company also has about 3,500 active patents in beauty care, which ranks them with at the top with Microsoft or IBM. “The way we’re going to win this game over time is on investment in research,” Bruce Brown, the vice president of P&G’s beauty division, says. Head & Shoulders still needs to pass through the Food and Drug Administration’s dandruff monograph and Brown is optimistic. “The chances of us bringing an innovation to Head & Shoulders based on this genome understanding is 100%.”

About The Scientist
The Scientist, magazine of the life sciences, has informed global life science professionals for over 20 years. They provide their print and online magazine readers with coverage of the latest developments in the life sciences including trends in research, new technology, news, business and careers. They reach the leading researchers and executive management in academia and industry who are interested in maintaining a broad view of the life sciences by reading insightful articles that are current, concise and entertaining. For more information about The Scientist, visit


Leslie Schultz Steve Harner
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Steven Harner
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