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A Noteworthy Research Investigation by Dr. Noble Egekwu and Team to Compare Expressed Genes for Female Synganglion from Oasis Publishers

A noteworthy research investigation by Dr. Noble Egekwu and team: Ticks, not much is known about how they regulate their behaviour; GAII high-throughput sequencing was used to compare expressed genes for female synganglion (fused central nervous system) neuropeptides in a hard tick versus a soft tick.

New York, NY, November 20, 2018 --( In this research by Dr. Noble Egekwu, Daniel E Sonenshine, and their team, published in the journal Insect Molecular Biology (2016 25: 72-92), they reported that “Illumina GAII high-throughput sequencing was used to compare expressed genes for female synganglion neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors and neurotransmitter receptors of the soft tick Ornithodoros turicata with the hard tick Ixodes scapularis.”

Egekwu et al. noted that “gene ontology molecular level three mapping revealed no significant differences amongst the same categories represented in O. turicata and I. scapularis.”

The study showed that “transcripts predicting 22 neuropeptides or their receptors in the O. turicata synganglion were similar to annotations for 23 neuropeptides or receptors previously identified from I scapularis, although there were minor exceptions. A transcript predicting ecdysis triggering hormone receptor was identified in O. turicata; transcripts encoding for proprotein convertase and glycoprotein B were identified in both species.”

Dr. Noble Egekwu, and team observed that transcripts predicting the same neurotransmitter receptors also were found in the synganglion of both species.

“It was also observed that gene expression of the transcripts showed numerous differences in response to feeding. Major differences were observed in expression of genes believed important in regulating slow vs. rapid feeding, blood water elimination, cuticle synthesis plasticity and in signalling reproductive activity. They did however also notice that although the glutamate receptor was strongly upregulated in both species, the gamma aminobutyric acid receptor, which inhibits glutamate, was upregulated significantly only in I. scapularis. These differences were found to consistent with the slow vs. rapid action of the pharyngeal pump in the two species.”

“Ticks are vectors of the microbial organisms that cause many important diseases of humans and animals. Examples include Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tick borne encephalitis, anaplasmosis, human and bovine babesiosis, relapsing fever and many others.

“Ticks are believed to surpass all other arthropods in the variety of infectious agents that can transmit and there is evidence that tick-borne disease prevalence may be spreading in Europe and elsewhere. It has been found that in North America, the ixodid tick Ixodes scapularis is the primary vector of the agents of the Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human babesiosis, relapsing fever and Powassan virus. Due to the aforementioned reasons, ixodid ticks (family Ixodidae) have been the subject of numerous investigations in an effort to prevent disease transmission and provide relief from tick bites. Although less familiar than the hard ticks, soft ticks (family Argasidae) also have been known to transmit microbial pathogens that can cause serious illnesses in humans and animals, e.g. tick-borne relapsing fever, African swine fever and others. However, this family of tick vectors have remained understudied compared with the medically more important ixodid ticks.”

“It has become vital however to study the family of tick vectors. Advances in medical diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne diseases have greatly reduced mortality and morbidity of tick-borne diseases.”

Dr. Noble Egekwu and the team deduced that the “similarity in the composition of transcripts predicting the synganglion neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors and neurotransmitter receptors in O. turicata and I. scapularis vs. the many differences in the directions of their gene expression in response to blood feeding may prove useful for understanding how the synganglion regulates the major differences in the development, behaviour and reproduction between these two species.”

It was also inferred that “further studies using RNAi and/or other gene-altering methods would be required to confirm the functional roles of these tick regulatory molecules.”

The study conducted by Dr. Noble Egekwu, and team will prove very important as ticks are notorious as the vectors of many deadly disease-causing microorganisms. Medical practitioners can study this at length and the research will aid them in deciding the further course of treatment for their patients.
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Noble Egekwu

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